Under the right circumstances, biomass can be considered a carbon-free resource; therefore, it can be an attractive option to reduce emissions from iron and steel production.
Carbon capture and storage (CCS) describes a suite of technologies that capture waste CO2, usually from large point sources, transport it to a storage site, and deposit it where it will not enter the atmosphere.
As is the case of carbon capture and storage (CCS), CCUS technologies separate and capture the CO2 generated during the iron and steelmaking process. The difference is that using CCS, the CO2 is stored permanently underground.
There are three main sources of hydrogen. ‘Green’ hydrogen is produced by combining renewable energy with electrolysis, ‘blue’ hydrogen is produced from fossil fuels in a facility equipped with carbon capture and storage (CCS), and ‘grey’ hydrogen comes from unabated fossil fuel.
Electrolysis is a technique that uses direct electric current to separate some chemical compounds into their constituent parts. Electricity is applied to an anode and a cathode, which are immersed in the chemical to be electrolysed.
Scrap is a term used to describe steel that has reached the end of its useful life, known as ‘post-consumer scrap’ or has been generated during the manufacture of steel products, known as ‘pre-consumer scrap’.
Over the past 20 years, the steel industry’s recovery rate of co-products has increased significantly. Innovative technology developments and synergies with other industries have brought the steel industry ever closer to its goal of zero-waste.
The steel industry actively manages the use of energy. Energy conservation in steelmaking is crucial to ensure the competitiveness of the industry and to minimise environmental impacts, such as greenhouse gas emissions.
Efficient use of natural resources is critical to sustainability. Steel’s great advantage is that it is 100% recyclable and can be reused infinitely. The industry uses advanced technologies and techniques to increase production yield rates and to facilitate the use of co-products. As a result of the intrinsic recyclability of steel, the value of the raw materials invested in steel production lasts far beyond the end of a steel product’s life
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