To achieve the drastic reductions needed, an entirely new, transformative approach to ironmaking is required, and there are several promising approaches to ironmaking at an industrial scale without the release of CO2.

These fall into three broad categories: carbon, hydrogen and electricity.

Using carbon as a reductant while preventing the emission of fossil CO2, for example using carbon capture, utilisation and storage (CCUS) and/or sustainable biomass.

Using electrical energy through an electrolysis based process.

Substituting hydrogen for carbon as a reductant, generating H2O (water) rather than CO2.

Several projects are under development: